photography

Photography 103: Apps for Phixing Fotos

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Photography has come a long way and the technology continuous to grow every day. Just today Apple announced their new phones with three camera lenses that can shoot a picture so wide it’s almost 360 degrees. Anyone can take a photo. But not all photos are created equal. That’s where filters can help.

The Ethics of Edits

There’s different kinds of edits that can be done. The more frowned upon edits are altering the way someone looks by making them thinner, removing blemishes, etc. We should avoid these kinds of edits, they support an unhealthy way to look at yourself.

And then there’s edits that help express creativity and style. I add grain to my photos because I like film photography and add light leaks because they make a photograph look different rather than just taking a picture.

Aesthetics in a photograph for creative expression, signature style and experimenting aren’t bad edits. It’s kind of like painting or applying make-up.

Apps for Editing

VSCO is a great editing app. Not only does it come with a ton of filters already installed, you can edit the filters or create your own filter and save them to apply to other photos. It’s free and there’s a membership version. The app also has a social media function that’s photography based. Follow other accounts to see their photos, post your own and find inspiration.

Afterlight 2 has a lot of editing capabilities along with creative edits. It also helps add grain for film effect, dust texture, lens distortion, etc. My favorite effect they have is light leaks. It’s free.

Over is sort of a designing app but it can edit photos and videos, too. Add text, overlays, awesome graphics, etc., it really helps when creating visually impactful messages. Using it’s fantastic Blend tool, you can also add light leaks, dust texture, paper texture, a double-exposed photo effect, etc.

Lightroom is for those who have an Adobe account and pay for the programs. It’s very powerful for editing global edits, it can also edit locally for fixing some parts on a photograph rather than all of it. And it syncs between your computer app and the phone app, which is super helpful when uploading photos to lightroom from your camera.

ConcLusion

So I recommend playing with these apps, trying new things on your photos and see what you can do. In an effort to not make this post super long, I’ll cut it here. Next photography posts will be about how to edit photos using these apps.

Kid’s Toy Camera

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Cameras, and photography in general, are a real passionate interest of mine and anything in that field excites me, always. Knowing the history of photography makes me appreciate how far we’ve come in camera technology. Experimenting with photography has become a hobby of mine so when I discovered on social media a kid’s camera I had to order one right away.

Photography History Lesson

When cameras first came about, people had to stand still in front of the camera for about thirty minutes for it to capture the photo. The film used to be glass plates which meant the risk of shattering which could mean losing the photo. Being a photographer back then also meant having to have some knowledge in chemistry since the glass plates had to be treated through chemicals for the photos to appear.

Multiple methods were used before photography became a click of a button, let alone the touch of a screen.

Review

Specifications listed from Amazon.com

Specifications listed from Amazon.com

I found the kid’s camera from Prograce on Amazon for roughly $23. Off the bat I knew the quality wasn’t going to be the absolute best, but three factors caught my interest with this camera: it’s price, size and capabilities.

The camera is about the size of a mint container running at about 2.5” in width and about 2” in height. The camera can take photos, record, play two pre-installed games and playback (show your your memory card’s photos and videos). The camera is strictly point-and-shoot with automatic settings across the board.

This camera can be recharged, which is a huge plus rather than having to buy batteries. The battery lasted me a full day of shooting with only lowering down one out of the three battery marks on the indicator.

Another note worth mentioning is that it takes micro sd cards. It’s a bit more convenient than having the memory built into the camera.

I took the camera to the happiest place on earth to play with and see how far its range can go. Below are the photos taken as-is. In my Duffy gallery you’ll find the photos edited by myself.

Like I mentioned, all the setting are on automatic. For the white balance, which controls the color cast, changes with with whoever light source is stronger in the image. Same for the exposure, it can adjust the exposure when pointed at light or shadowed areas, but cannot properly expose both in one shot.

Conclusion

This camera is fantastic for everything it can do. With capabilities of portability, rechargeable and micro sd use…this camera is definitely worth $23 (the micro sd card is separate). It’s marketed towards kids but it’s a good camera to use for basic shots.

Photography 102: Color In and Out of the camera

Light’s Effect on Color

Here’s the basic science: color exists because of light and the cone receptors in our eyes registering the color. Objects have properties that hold onto certain colors and bounce off other colors; the colors that bounce off are the colors our eyes register. That’s the super simplified version.

Now, a light source (the sun, a lamp, a flame) casts and overall tone to the colors we perceive. The sun, the true light source, doesn’t cast a tone, it shows true colors. A tungsten/incandescent light bulb, the ones usually homes have, casts an orange tone. Fluorescent lights, usually in big stores, cast a blue-ish tone.

Our brain color corrects the tones so that we don’t notice them, everything looks to be in true color. The camera, however, needs to be told what the light source is so that it can color correct the image. This setting is called the White Balance.

When a photo is taken in tungsten light but the white balance is set to fluorescent light, the image will come out very orange-y. If the white balance is set to tungsten light and taken in the same light, the camera will add a blue cast to counter the orange from the tungsten light. If the white balance is on AUTOMATIC then the camera will know to add the correct cast of color to counter the light’s cast but if it’s not on auto then it’ll be evident in the photograph.

The photographs below, although taken very sloppily, illustrate how the white balance affects color. This Disneyland model is lit by tungsten lights but my camera was set to fluorescent lights in the first photograph and then changed to tungsten white balance in the second photograph, correcting the color. In person, the scale model looks like the photo on the right because my brain corrected the color. I only noticed I had the wrong setting when I looked at the image after I took the first photo.

In Conclusion

There’s really not much more to white balance other than its purpose is to correct casted colors. The white balance helps the camera take the photograph the way our eyes perceive the scene, its a way to take straightforward picture. But that doesn’t mean it’s the only way a photograph can look. My previous photography post, Photography 101: The Trifecta of Proper Exposure, and this post are all that’s really needed to understand how to take a basic, correct photo, technically speaking.

Next post I’ll talk about some ways to make a basic photo look not-so-basic.

Photography 101: The Trifecta of Proper Exposure

What’s a Photograph?

Obviously, everyone knows what a photograph is but not everyone knows HOW to make a proper photograph nor the two main ingredients needed. And I’m not talking about aesthetics, the visual appeal, of a photograph; I’m only talking about the technical side.

To make a proper photograph there needs to be light and shadows. Sounds simple, but people don’t pay attention to that basic photography fact because the majority take pictures on their phones and phones are set on AUTOMATIC settings (nothing wring with that).

A photograph is, essentially, sensors in the camera, behind the lens, capturing light and the strength of it. Light will bounce off a subject and go onto the sensor. The more light that goes onto the sensor, the brighter the subject is captured. Subjects that aren’t lit up as much, shadowy areas, don’t have strong enough light going in the camera so the sensor can’t register it as clearly.

It’s easy to understand this in terms of our eyes. When the lights are off, you can’t see. If you turn on a candle, you can see the flame and objects that are lit up by the flame, but if you’re in a big room then you still can’t see much. Turn on a lamp, a stronger light source than the flame, and you can see more.

But in order to capture something properly, shadows are needed! Without shadows, a photograph can look washout or flat. Shadows help the subject look three-dimensional. It’s the balance of light and shadows that make a proper photograph.

The 3 Determining Factors

So how do we control how much light the sensor receives, the exposure? There are three determining factors that have to be taken into account when capturing a photograph: the ISO, the Aperture and the Shutter Speed. All cameras I’ve come across have the ability to control these three factors.

ISO

The ISO, which means International Organization of Standardization, controls the sensitivity of the sensor. Typically ISOs range from 200, 400, 600, 800…6400. The lower the ISO, the less sensitive the sensor is to light.

So if you’re taking photos when the sun is in full swing lighting up everything, the ISO needs to be lower or else the photograph will come out white. If you’re taking photos inside a room with a few lamps as the light source, the ISO needs to be higher so that the sensor can be more sensitive to light and try and pick up as much as it can.

But remember, the higher the ISO, the more noise, or grain, a photo has. This is why darker photos taken with your phone aren’t clear, the phone’s automatic setting bumps up its ISO to the max.

Aperture

The aperture, or f-stop, is the lens’s hole opening radius, if that makes sense. It’s the size of the hole in the lens where the light comes through. This size of the opening determines how much light is allowed to enter through to the sensor. In the camera settings the aperture is usually an number with an f in front of it. The scales of the f-stop goes: f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8. Rule of thumb: the bigger the number, the smaller the opening. Combining the aperture with the ISO can help achieve proper lighting for a photograph.

However, the size of the hole also adds another effect: the depth of field. The depth of field is the focus or blur level between the distance of the subject and its background. iPhones have created this effect under the Portrait mode in the camera app.

If the f-stop opening is smaller, the entire image, in terms of depth, is in focus. If the f-stop opening is larger then certain parts of the image will be in focus while the other is out-of-focus, again in terms of depth.

So let’s say you’re taking a picture of a person standing five feet in front of a sign and then a couple hundred feet in front of a mountain, in one picture. If the lens is at f/8 then the person, the sign and the mountain will be in in focus. If the aperture is at f/1.4 then the camera can focus on either the person and have the sign and the mountain out-of-focus, or focus on the sign and have the person and the mountain out-of-focus, OR focus on the mountain and have the person and the sign out-of-focus.

Shutter Speed

The shutter speed is the final determine factor and it’s probably the easiest to comprehend. Behind the aperture, in front of the sensor are shutters horizontal shutters that resembles blinds on a window. When the shutter release button is pushed, or for smart phones the button is touched on the screen, the shutters will open for a fraction of a second to all the light to hit the sensor.

The shutters are actual moving parts in the camera, they’re the iconic sound made when a photograph in taken. These shutters are always closed and only open when the shutter release button on pushed. Their purpose is to determine for how long the shutters remain open.

On a camera the settings for the shutter release button are usually preset to 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15…1/1000. These are fractions of a second, the length of time the light has to hit the sensor. If they’re open for too long such as 1/2 second then more light will enter compared to 1/1000.

So let’s go back to the scenario about taking a photo outside when the sun is out. Taking a photo with the shutter speed at 1/2 will be washed out because that’s too much time for the all that light to hit the sensor, 1/1000 might be more suitable. But if you’re indoors where the light isn’t as strong then 1/1000 might be too short of a time and perhaps 1/260 might be best.

But like the first two factors, the shutter speed also creates and effect. The longer the shutter speeds are open the more light is captured BUT movement can also be captured. The faster the shutter speed the less movement is captured; very fast shutter speeds can make someone running look frozen in the air.

In Conclusion

In terms of capturing a standard photograph, these three factors need to be taken into consideration. It’s always fun to play around with the settings of these and see how they work together to capture photographs. There’s nothing wrong with taking pictures on automatic mode but creativity comes from capturing a scene or portrait that looks a little different that normality.

In terms of taking a photograph with the proper exposure balance, this is all you need to know. I’ll post another article explaining colors.